Defensive Defence, articles & papers

Defence without Offence – Non-nuclear defence for Europe: Frank Barnaby and Egbert Bouker (Peace Studies Paper No 8, Bradford University, 1982).

Defence without the BombThe Report of the Alternative Defence Commission: Alternative Defence Commission, (Taylor and Francis Ltd, 1983).

Why Britain should adopt defence-only strategy, Frank Barnaby and Peter Smith (Glasgow Herald, 12.9.86). 

Charter for ‘Just Defence’ & initial signatories, undated but includes a reference to the 1987 election.

Common Security and Non-Provocative Defence: Alternative Approaches to the Security Dilemma, 1989: Geoffrey Wiseman – professor of international relations, University of South California  –

United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research Symposium: Nonoffensive Defense: A Global Perspective review of proceedings (Taylor and Francis Ltd, May 1990): United Nations Association Briefing No 50.

Agenda for Peace, 1992: Dr Boutros Boutros-Ghali, UN General Secretary

What is Proper Soldiering? – A Study on New Perspectives For the Future Uses of the Armed Forces in the 1990s: Michael Harbottle, a former chief of UN Peacekeeping in Cyprus, Centre for International Peacekeeping, 1991; 2nd edition 1992

Defensive Security Concepts and Policies Report passed by the 45th Session of the General Assembly and the Guidelines and Recommendations for Regional Approaches to Disarmament passed by UNDC in 1993. 

Independent cross-party enquiry held in the House of Commons, designed by MPs Michael Meacher (Lab), David Howells (Cons) and David Steel (Lib Dem), 10.6.93, is relevant, though referring to military intervention undertaken by a UN force. See also Michael Meacher: A Challenge for the New World Order (The House Magazine. 21.6.93)

Beyond the Famished Road: New Policies for Common Security, Alan Simpson MP, 1994

Non-Offensive Defence in the Asia-Pacific Region, Björn Möller and Hakan Wiberg: Non-Offensive Defense for the Twenty-First Century, eds Björn Möller, Hakan Wiberg, 01 April, 1994

Deterring War Responsibly: a new defence policy for Britain, 1995: Dr Frank Barnaby and Cdr Robert Green (RN, retd), Just Defence publication 

UN Military Demands and Non-Offensive Defence – Collective Security, Humanitarian Intervention and Peace Support Operations: Björn Möller of the Centre for Peace &  Conflict Research, Denmark, , George Mason University, Virginia, USA. Publisher: Network of Peace and Conflict Studies – 12/1996. An abridged version of the above paper was presented to the Sixteenth General Conference of the International Peace Research Association (IPRA), Creating Nonviolent Futures: University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia 8-12th July 1996

Common Security and Non-Offensive Defence as Guidelines for Defence Planning and Arms Control?  Björn Möller, This essay is an introduction to the concept of ‘non-offensive defense’, which many scholars are arguing should guide regional and worldwide military restructuring in a manner that rules out armed aggression as a viable option and heavily favors defensive military structures. 

Controlling Weapons in the Quest for Peace: Non-Offensive Defence, Arms Control, Disarmament, and Conversion: Hans Gunter Brauch, Czeslaw Mesjasz, and Björn Möller (15-53) in Chadwick F. Alger edit., The Future of the United Nations System: Potential for the Twenty-First Century (New York: United Nations Univ. Press, 1998).

Resolving the Security Dilemma in Europe: The German Debate on Non-Offensive Defence: Björn Möller (no date given on website)

Concepts of Non-Provocative Defence, 2002: Geoffrey Wiseman – professor of international relations, University of South California

The UK and Non-offensive Defence: an introductory study on the implications of the UK adopting a non-offensive defence stance, Dr Steven Schofield, launched in the House of Commons, 10.12.02. In the 90s, as Schofield records: The transformation of East/West relations, indeed the adoption of NoD by the Soviet Union in ways that its critics had rejected as unrealistic for Nato, provided exactly the sort of confidence-building measure that contributed to an extraordinary period of nuclear and conventional disarmament. Now, it is generally agreed that the UK and Western Europe face no serious threat of invasion or conventional (as opposed to terrorist) attack . . .

OCEANS OF WORK- ARMS CONVERSION REVISITED, Dr Steven Schofield, published by the British American Security Information Council [BASIC], 2007: Countries would be expected to abide by a strict UN Charter that allowed only limited, non-offensive forces for territorial defence and a contribution to international peacekeeping

Common Security – Progressive Alternatives to the New Arms RaceDr Steven Schofield wrote this paper following the Defence and Security Review (2015) in order to highlight the common security framework as an alternative to the new arms race:


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